Anne-Marie Tousch, Stéphane Herbin and Jean-Yves Audibert
In this survey, we argue that using structured vocabularies is capital to the success of image annotation. We analyze literature on image annotation uses and user needs, and we stress the need for automatic annotation. We briefly expose the difficulties posed to machines for this task and how it relates to controlled vocabularies. We survey contributions in the field showing how structures are introduced. First we present studies that use unstructured vocabulary, focusing on those introducing links between categories or between features. Then we review work using structured vocabularies as an input and analyze how the structure is exploited.
► Literature on image annotation uses and user needs is reviewed. ► Approaches using unstructured or hierarchical vocabularies are compared. ► We argue that structured vocabularies is capital to automatic image annotation.
Keywords: Image annotation; Semantic description; Structured vocabulary; Image retrieval